WV History / Research – West Virginia – MH3WV
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<< RESEARCH >>
“The Constitution of the State of West Virginia”
“Citizen’s Guide to the Legislature”
Includes: State Capitol Information, The Legislative Process, The Committee Process, Floor Action, Common Legislative Terms
“How a Bill Becomes Law in WV”
“A bill is an idea for a new law, or an idea to change or do away with an existing law. Hundreds of bills enter the legislative process in West Virginia each time the Legislature meets. Two groups of elected citizens – 34 senators and 100 delegates – study, discuss and vote on bills, and in doing so act for the people of West Virginia. Bills enter the legislative process either through the House of Delegates or the Senate, but to become laws, bills must pass both chambers and avoid a governor’s veto.”
“West Virginia Code”
“The WV Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.”
“The Blue Book”
“Published each year, the Blue Book is an extensive guide containing information on current officials in the executive, legislative and judicial branches of state government; federal officers, including the president, congressional representatives and judges; and, political leaders, including party committee chairs and members. The books published in odd-numbered years and the 2000 edition, include photographs and biographies of these officials. This publication also contains information on state and federal agencies; postal information; the Constitutions of the United States and West Virginia; and, considerable information on counties, municipalities and various organizations.”
Explore “Blue Book” 2012 edition — 950+ pages pdf file (Check your school or public library for other years.)
Explore “Blue Book” 2015-2016 edition — by section: (pdfs)
Frontice (p. I-XIV)
Section 1: Executive (p. 1-336)
Section 2: Legislative (p. 337-512)
Section 3: Judicial (p. 513-542)
Section 4: Constitutional (p. 543-628)
Section 5: Institutions (p. 629-676)
Section 6: Federal (p. 677-752)
Section 7: Press, Television & Radio, Postal (p. 753-766)
Section 8: Political (p. 767-876)
Section 9: Counties (p. 877-946)
Section 10: Municipalities (p. 947-1042)
Section 11: Departmental, Statistical & General Information (p. 1043-1116)
Section 12: Index (p. 1117-1134)
“WV Legislature’s Office of Reference and Information”
“Created by the Joint Committee on Government & Finance in 1976, the Office of Reference & Information disseminates information on all facets of the legislative process. The office serves the general public, lawmakers and the media by producing written and electronic educational materials, publications and news releases regarding the actions of the Legislature. In addition, the office designs and maintains the Legislature’s Web site, handles all legislative photography and houses the legislative research library. All work of the office is nonpartisan and covers the actions of both the Senate and the House of Delegates.”
“The Foundation of Justice: West Virginia Court System” – West Virginia Judiciary
“This video, about the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia and the state court system, gives viewers an understanding of the judicial process. It contains historical footage, archival photos, interviews, and detailed shots of the stunning Courtroom in the East Wing of the West Virginia Capitol. It is narrated by Justice Thomas E. McHugh.”
<<This is a two-part video — this part deals with the WV Judicial Process. The other part, located on the “Special Places” page, includes the Courtroom and History of the WV Supreme Court.>>
(16:03/2016/West Virginia Judiciary)
“The Constitution of the United States of America”
“The Library of Congress”
“The Library of Congress is the nation’s oldest federal cultural institution and serves as the research arm of Congress. It is also the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, maps and manuscripts in its collections.
“The Library’s mission is to support the Congress in fulfilling its constitutional duties and to further the progress of knowledge and creativity for the benefit of the American people.
“The Library of Congress occupies three buildings on Capitol Hill. The Thomas Jefferson Building (1897) is the original separate Library of Congress building. (The Library began in 1800 inside the U.S. Capitol.) The John Adams Building was built in 1938 and the James Madison Memorial Building was completed in 1981.
“An agency of the legislative branch of the U.S. government, the Library includes several internal divisions (or service units), including the Office of the Librarian, Congressional Research Service, U.S. Copyright Office, Law Library of Congress, Library Services, the Office of Strategic Initiatives and the Office of Support Operations.
“Today’s Library of Congress is an unparalleled world resource. The collection of more than 160 million items includes more than 37.8 million cataloged books and other print materials in 470 languages; more than 69.6 million manuscripts; the largest rare book collection in North America; and the world’s largest collection of legal materials, films, maps, sheet music and sound recordings.”
“WV Library Commission”
“The West Virginia Library Commission encourages lifelong learning, individual empowerment, civic engagement and an enriched quality of life by enhancing library and information services for all West Virginians.”
“West Virginia: A Digital Primer, Elementary Edition”
“Additional resources for teachers, school librarians, parents, and students to further explore the exciting and fasinating events in West Virgina history. Click on the tabs to find interesting resources relating to information on the state, fun activities, books and videos about WV, and more.”
A wide range of videos, including additional History Alive! presentations, are available from the Library Television Network.
“WV University Libraries” – WVU
“The Rare Book Room in the West Virginia and Regional History Center owns many treasures from across the globe, including a two volume legal dictionary once owned by Thomas Jefferson.”
“WV History OnView” – WVU Libraries
“Photographs from West Virginia and regional history collection at the WVU Libraries.
“The West Virginia and Regional History Center contains the most comprehensive collection of historic photographs pertaining to West Virginia in existence. Estimated to include more than 225,000 images, these photographs are interspersed throughout the WVRHC’s broad holdings.
“The West Virginia and Regional History Center has created a digital version of this tremendous pictorial resource which documents the history of countless subjects and places in West Virginia. As of Spring 2013, more than 41,000 images are available via “West Virginia History OnView,” and more are added on a regular basis. In addition to offering convenient on-site and remote access to these photographs, the image records offer extensive catalog and subject data which makes this resources highly searchable and user friendly.
“The creators of the photos are diverse and in many cases unknown. The date range is roughly 1850 to the present. The digital resource has been in production by the staff of the WVRHC since fall 2004. The resource is fully searchable by catalog metadata, character string, and with Boolean capability.”
“The West Virginia Encyclopedia (e-WV)” – WV Humanities Council
“All There is to Know about West Virginia”
“The West Virginia Encyclopedia is the comprehensive reference resource for the Mountain State of West Virginia. Based on the best-selling West Virginia Encyclopedia, e-WV offers thousands of articles on West Virginia’s people and places, history, arts, science and culture.”
“This Week in WV History” – WV Public Broadcasting & e-WV
“Explore economic, social, and political events and individuals in West Virginia history with the West Virginia Public Broadcasting series ‘This Week in WV History.’ A guided listening graphic organizer, scripts, and a timeline and extension activity for each month is included in support materials.” Extensive–and growing–audio series.
“The Clio” – Marshall University
“Named after the ancient muse of history…, Clio is an educational website and mobile application that guides the public to thousands of historical and cultural sites throughout the United States. Built by scholars for public benefit, each entry includes a concise summary and useful information about a historical site, museum, monument, landmark, or other site of cultural or historical significance. In addition, “time capsule” entries allow users to learn about historical events that occurred around them. Each entry offers turn-by-turn directions as well as links to relevant books, articles, videos, primary sources, and credible websites.
“Clio offers a compelling intellectual challenge as professional historians work with local history experts to create and vet entries in an open digital environment. Ambitious in scope, Clio allows scholars and their students to publish humanities scholarship using an innovative digital format that will instantly reach a broad audience in ways that cannot be replicated by traditional forms of publishing. We believe that there is something powerful that occurs when our sense of the past connects with our sense of place. We hope that you will use Clio to connect with the history and culture that surrounds you.”
“WV’s Historical Highway Markers” – WV Culture and History
Explore each topic below by clicking on it:
- Historical Highway Marker FAQs
- Historical Highway Marker Book
- Historical Highway Marker Database
- Historical Highway Marker Information
- Historical Highway Marker Guidelines
- Historical Highway Marker Application
- Sesquicentennial Historical Highway Markers
“WV Division of Culture & History”
“The mission of the West Virginia Division of Culture and History is to identify, preserve, protect, promote and present the ideas, arts and artifacts of West Virginia’s heritage, building pride in our past accomplishments and confidence in our future.
“The Division’s main offices are in the Culture Center at the State Capitol in Charleston. The building is home to the State Museum and Theater, the State Archives and Collections, and a library for genealogical research. The Division includes the West Virginia Commission on the Arts and the State Historic Preservation Office. The Division also administers five other historical sites in other areas of the state.”
“WV State Archives”
“The West Virginia Archives and History web site offers detailed information on the state’s history, outlines the documents available in the State Archives, and provides assistance in conducting genealogical research.”
“History Center” – WV Archives & History
Features, Guides, Programs, and Publications:
“U.S.S. West Virginia (BB48)” (Online Exhibit)
“His Soul Goes Marching On – The Life and Legacy of John Brown” (Online Exhibit)
“African-Americans in WV”
- Celebrating Lives: A Glimpse At African-Americans in West Virginia
- “History of the American Negro”
- A Brief History of African-Americans in West Virginia
- A Timeline of West Virginia African-American History
- African-Americans in the Counties of Present-day West Virginia in 1860
“Celebrating Lives: A Glimpse At African-Americans in WV” (Online Exhibit)
“Celebrating African-American Historic Places in WV”
“The National Register of Historic Places recognizes both public and private resources associated with our nation’s history. The West Virginia State Historic Preservation Office is pleased to highlight some of the historic resources in West Virginia which are associated with black history and which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. This list showcases only those sites which are listed individually. There are other sites which are listed as part of larger nominations, such as historic districts. And, there are other sites related to African American history which have not been listed.”
“African-American Heritage Trail” – WV Tourism
“African-Americans play a pivotal role in the culture and history of West Virginia. Rooted in servitude, their brave efforts would help tame wilderness, build industry and create the only state born of the Civil War.”
“The African-American presence in West Virginia dates from the 1780s, when European exploring parties brought slaves to the Greenbrier and New River valleys. During the French and Indian Wars, blacks aided the army as it moved through the New River and Big Sandy valleys up toward the Ohio River and helped to stake claims for white settlers. . . ”
“West Virginia Center for African-American Art & Culture”
“The West Virginia Center for African-American Art & Culture, Inc. is a non-profit organization established to provide an enhanced cultural learning experience for all visitors.”
“J. R. Clifford Project” – Friends of Blackwater
“Friends of Blackwater (“FOB”) is pleased to have added the J. R. Clifford Project to its range of programs that includes heritage education and environmental preservation programs . . . J. R. Clifford (1848-1933), West Virginia’s first African American attorney, is among twelve Civil Rights Pioneers announced as honorees on a 2009 Commemorative Stamp sheet issued by the United States Postal Service.”
“Since December 2004, The J. R. Clifford Project has involved thousands of West Virginians and visitors to the Mountain State in statewide and local educational programs to increase awareness of the life and works of John Robert “J. R.” Clifford. The programs reflect Clifford’s opposition to racism and highlight the supportive role West Virginia has played in upholding American civil rights.”
“Segregated Schools in WV” – WV Public Broadcasting
“West Virginia’s all-black schools went away after the 1954 US Supreme Court decision that declared the establishment of separate public schools for black and white students was unconstitutional.” (3:54/2011/WV Public Broadcasting)
“WV Association of Museums”
‘Preserving the Story and Soul of the Mountain State”
“The mission of the West Virginia Association of Museums is to serve, educate, advocate for, and enhance communications within the museum community. WVAM carries out this mission by listening to its members and serving their interests and by keeping the members abreast of current standards and activities on a national scale.”
“The Mountain State has many treasures that we invite you to explore. We encourage you to use this resource to visit the places and experience the activities that represent the history, arts, technology, industry, and cultural diversity that West Virginia offers through its more than 300 museums.”
“WV Geological & Economic Survey”
“West Virginia’s center for geology, energy resources, industrial minerals, geologic hazards, ground water, topographic and geologic maps, earth science, and much more.
“The Survey is here to serve you–to answer your WV geology-related and earth science questions, whether you are a landowner or engineer, professional or student, private citizen or company representative.”
“Maps and Map Files Related to WV Geology” – WVGES
“MapWV” – WV GIS Technical Center
“MapWV is a public gateway to online mapping resources in the Mountain State. It allows user access to a wealth of high-quality maps and geographic data via the Internet. All of our maps are free for use by the public. Feel free to use them as you need.”
“Here is a great collection of free printable West Virginia maps. These are .pdf files that download and work nicely with almost any printer. You can print them for use at home, work or school.” (These three maps are from a commercial website and have the company information in lower left corner.)
“Maps” – WV Dept of Transportation
The “Official State Highway Map 2010” pdf is one of the best. Railroads, roads, highways and important locations are clearly shown while waterways are bright blue and easily seen. Though dated 2010, it is missing only some of the most recent highway construction–such as Corridor H, Rt 9, Rt 10, King Coal Highway, and the Coalfields Expressway–projects shown as under construction but at least partially completed now. <<MH3WV will work to keep this map available for WV Studies>>
Additional maps from the DOT: Official State Highway Map (the 2015 map from the DOT website is not as detailed — nor as accurate — as the 2010 map above), State General Highway Map, State Functional Classification Map, State Highway Base Map, General Highway County Maps (55 Counties – 132 sheets), Alphabetical Listing of County Maps, City Maps (205), Urban Area Maps (26)
“Topographic Maps” – My Topo
“Browse and view FREE US Geological Survey, US Forest Service, and NRCan topo maps for the US and Canada.”
This website displays topographic maps which can be zoomed, dragged, and printed. No charge, no ads (although they will be glad to sell a map to you.)
“WV Traditions” – WV Tourism
Brief descriptions of these topics:
- WV Music Heritage
- Railroad History
- Arts and Crafts
- Civil War History
- Historic Trails
- Glass Tours
- WV Festivals
- Coal, Oil, Gas, and Timber in WV
“WV Historical Society Quarterly”
Magazine published four times a year covers a very wide range of topics.
“Goldenseal” – WV Culture and History
“Goldenseal, the magazine of West Virginia traditional life, is produced by the Division of Culture and History and takes its stories from the recollections of West Virginians living throughout the state. Oral history fieldwork and documentary photography result in four issues per year with articles on subjects such as labor history, folklore, music, farming, religion, traditional crafts, food, and politics.”
“Wonderful West Virginia” – WV Dept of Natural Resources
“Welcome to Wonderful West Virginia, the state’s premier showpiece magazine published monthly by the Division of Natural Resources. Wonderful West Virginia showcases “the best of West Virginia” with breath-taking photographs and intriguing articles about nature, state history, recreation, art, and interesting people. Readers that enjoy our publication include: nature lovers, outdoor recreationists, hunters and anglers, West Virginia history and natural history buffs, travel enthusiasts and art & craft lovers as well as many more.” (If a popup box appears saying “Authentication Required” just cancel it.)
“History Alive!” – WV Humanities Council
“History Alive! provides a unique passport to the past. The program brings historical characters to life through portrayals by presenters who have conducted scholarly research on their character.
“History Alive! allows audiences to explore history through interaction with historical figures. These presentations are not one-person plays. They are intended to engage audiences in a dialogue with the character.
“History Alive! presenters have conducted thorough research into the characters they portray. They have gained insight into their character after studying primary sources such as autobiographies, journals, letters, speeches and other personal papers. Their presentation is based on scholarship and analysis rather than a script.”
“WV Quick Facts” – US Census Bureau
– To serve as the leading source of quality data about the nation’s people and economy.
– To provide the best mix of timeliness, relevancy, quality, and cost for the data we collect and services we provide.”
“WV State Facts for Students”
“The U.S. Census Bureau takes a census of the population every 10 years, and censuses of economic activity and governments every five years. And every year, the Census Bureau conducts more than 100 other surveys. Data on this page come from the 2010 Census, the American Community Survey, Population Estimates, County Business Patterns.”
An overview and topical guide to WV.
<<The following are on the “Transportation” page:
“The Role of the River in the Development of WV Commerce”
“State and National Highway-Related Milestones”
“WV Rail Heritage” and WV Rail History>>
<< HISTORY >>
“West Virginia: A Brief History”
This video is from the WV State Museum at the Culture Center in Charleston.
(13:23/2016/WV Museum Ed)
“Important Dates in West Virginia History — 3000 BC – 1999”
3000 BC – Adena “Mound Builder” settlements appeared throughout the area.
1607 – First permanent English Colony was established at Jamestown, Virginia.
1669 – John Lederer and companions were first Europeans to see what is now West Virginia.
1673 – Gabriel Arthur accompanied a party of Cherokee or Yuchi Indians to Shawnee country in Ohio by way of a trail through the Kanawha Valley.
1716 – Governor Alexander Spotswood led an expedition of 50 gentlemen to the banks of the Shenandoah River.
1726 – Morgan Morgan was the first white settler at Bunker Hill in Berkeley County.
1727 – German settlers from Pennsylvania established the first permanent settlement at New Mecklensburg (Shepherdstown) in Jefferson County.
1730 – Virginia began to encourage settlement in the western valley of Virginia.
1742 – John P. Salley discovered coal on the Coal River in Kanawha County.
1746 – Thomas, “sixth lord” Fairfax, marked the western boundary of his land grant from the King of England at the corner of Tucker and Grant Counties. This was the first monument erected to mark ownership in the state.
1754-1755 – The French and Indians defeated troops led by Washington and Braddock in the state.
1774 – Battle of Point Pleasant, between forces of Colonel Andrew Lewis and Chief Cornstalk of the Shawnees, resulted in the Treaty of Camp Charlotte formally ending Dunmore’s War. This is considered by some to be the first Battle of the Revolution.
1782 – Last battle of the Revolution was fought at Fort Henry, Wheeling, Ohio County.
1815 – Gas discovered near Charleston, Kanawha County.
1832 – Charles Faulkner of Berkeley County delivers a speech before the Virginia General Assembly denouncing slavery on economic grounds.
1835 – On October 14, three men and one woman were charged with illegally teaching African-Americans to read in Wheeling. This incident was among twelve such cases in Wheeling.
1847 – The Reverend Dr. Henry Ruffner, from Kanawha County, and president of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, delivered his “Address to the People” on the abolition of slavery for western Virginia for economic reasons.
1859 – John Brown raided the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, in an effort to abolish slavery.
1861 – Counties of western Virginia refused to secede with Virginia and created the Restored Government of Virginia in Wheeling.
1861 – Battle of Philippi – first land battle of the Civil War.
1863 – On January 1, President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves in areas of rebellion, but did not apply to states loyal to the Union, including the future state of West Virginia.
1863 – West Virginia became the 35th state (June 20).
1863 – On July 15, the governor of West Virginia approved an act giving African-Americans the same rights to criminal trial as whites. However, Blacks were denied the right to serve on a jury.
1863 – On December 9, the governor approved an act forbidding residency of any slave who entered the state after June 20, 1863.
1865 – On February 3, the governor approved an act abolishing slavery, providing the immediate emancipation of all slaves.
1867 – Storer College, one of the country’s first Black colleges, opened at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County.
1867 – The West Virginia Legislature ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting full citizenship to African-Americans.
1868 – Only national cemetery in the state was established at Grafton, Taylor County.
1869 – The West Virginia Legislature ratified the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution granting African-Americans the right to vote.
1873 – Charleston Mayor Snyder and city council appointed Ernest Porterfield as a police officer, the first African-American to receive a public job in Kanawha County and possibly West Virginia. Within one hour, the remainder of the white police force, including the chief, resigned. Rather than ask for Porterfield’s resignation, the mayor hired a new police force.
1881 – The governor approved a bill, allowing all eligible voting citizens, including African-Americans, to be jurors.
1891 – The West Virginia Legislature passed an act establishing the West Virginia Colored Institute at Institute in Kanawha County. Later renamed West Virginia State College, it has become one of the leading Black institutions of public learning in the nation.
1895 – The West Virginia Legislature passed an act establishing the Bluefield Colored Institute, which later became Bluefield State College, Mercer County.
1896 – Voters elected the first African-American to the legislature, Christopher Payne of Fayette County.
1906 – From August 15 – 19, the second meeting of the Niagara Movement convened at Storer College in Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County. Led by W. E. B. DuBois, this movement was the forerunner to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
1920-1921 – Coal wars in an effort to unionize West Virginia coal miners.
1928 – Minnie Buckingham Harper was appointed to the House of Delegates, becoming the first African-American woman to serve in a legislative body in the United States.
1939 – West Virginia State College became the first African-American college in the country to establish a Civilian Pilot Training Program, approved by the Civilian Aeronautics Authority in Washington, DC.
1961 – The West Virginia Human Rights Commission was created by the legislature to fight racism.
1972 – Arnold Miller became the first native West Virginian to head the United Mine Workers (UMW) union. He appointed Levi Daniel president of District 29 in southern West Virginia, the first African-American district president in the history of the UMW.
1984 – Captain Jon A. McBride of Beckley in Raleigh County piloted the Challenger Space Shuttle on its first mission October 5, 1984.
1984 – Fairmont native Mary Lou Retton became the first woman to win a gold medal in gymnastics at the Los Angeles Olympics. She also took home two silver medals, two bronze medals and went on to become an official spokesperson for Wheaties, appearing on several breakfast cereal packages.
1996 – Cecil H. Underwood became the state’s oldest governor, having served in the same post in 1957 as the state’s youngest governor.
1999 – Homer Hickam, who grew up in the mining town of Coalwood in McDowell County and retired from NASA as a Payload Training Manager for the International Space Station, became a best-selling author with his book “Rocket Boys,” upon which the award-winning 1999 motion picture “October Sky” was based.
“Native Americans”– WV Archives and History
- Sources on Native Americans in West Virginia
- History of Native Americans in West Virginia
- Early Native American Cultures (through 1000 BCE)
- Early Native American Cultures (1000 BCE-1600 CE)
- Mounds and Mound Builders
- Native American Clashes with European Settlers
- “American Antiquities at Grave Creek”
- Grave Creek Mound: Description by Meriwether Lewis, 1803
- Grave Creek Mound: Description by Thaddeus Mason Harris, 1803
- Grave Creek Mound: Description by Reuben Gold Thwaites, 1894
- “Shell Deposits at the Mouth of Short Creek, West Virginia”
- “Stone Mounds of Hampshire County, West Virginia”
- “Smaller Parts of Mystery Walls Reported Unharmed”
- “The Mystery of Armstrong Mountain: Has Prehistoric Site Been Stripped?”
- “Walls Tumbled Before Strippers, City Man Vows”
- “Was There Actually An Ancient Wall In Fayette?”
- “The Old Stone Wall”
- “Prehistoric Remains at Mount Carbon”
- “Two Prehistoric Indian Mounds Found Near Morgansville”
- “Dunbar High School Turns to Archeology”
- “Shrouded in Mystery are the Great Pre-Historic Ruins at Bens Run, W. Va.”
- “Cabell County Once Rich in Relics of Early Race of Moundbuilders”
- List of Prehistoric Works
- Massacre of Logan’s Family (Time Trail)
- Sources on Logan
- “Logan: A Friend of the White Man”
- Sources on Cornstalk
- Fighting Chief Cornstalk’s Remains Laid To Rest Again”
- Sources on Tecumseh
- “Famed Tecumseh Was a West Virginian”
Explore WV Archives and History’s “Native Americans” Website – includes links to more information on each of the above topics.
“History of Native Americans in West Virginia”– WV Archives and History
- Paleo-Indian (before 11000 BCE)
- Archaic (7000-1000 BCE)
- Adena (1000 BCE-500 CE)
- Hopewell (500 BCE-1000 CE)
- Late Prehistoric (1000-1600 CE)
Mounds & Mound Builders
- Grave Creek Mound
- Criel Mound (South Charleston)
- Other Mounds
Clashes with European Settlers
- Emergence of Tribes
- European Exploration & Settlement
- Native American Concept of Land
- French & Indian War
- Proclamation of 1763 & Pontiac’s War
- Battle of Point Pleasant
- Revolutionary War & the Aftermath
Explore WV Archives and History’s “History of Native Americans in West Virginia” Website – includes links to more information on each of the above topics.
“The Adena” – An Introduction to North America’s Native People
“Mounds & Mound Builders” – WV Archives and History
“The Adena people were the first Native Americans to build ceremonial mounds. In other parts of the world, ceremonial burials had occurred much earlier. The Egyptian pyramids date to 2700 BCE; in England, stone chambers called barrows were used as early as 2000 BCE; between 1700 and 1400 BCE, keirgans were used in central Siberia; and the burial mounds of the Choo Dynasty in northern China date to 1000 BCE.
“We know little about how or why the mounds were built. Historian Otis Rice suggests these early Americans “built mounds over the remains of chiefs, shamans, priests, and other honored dead.” For their “common folk,” the Adenas cremated the dead bodies, placing the remains in small log tombs on the surface of the ground. Virtually all of these graves have been destroyed by nature and later settlement. Therefore, the more substantial mounds are our only physical records of Adena burials.”
“The Famous Feuding Families of the Kentucky Frontier” – Smithsonian Channel
“Kentucky’s State Penitentiary has been serving up justice since 1889 – a time when family feuds, like the legendary Hatfield-McCoy feuds, were settled with violence and blood.” [The prison shown is in western KY – far from the WV border] (3:12/2014/Smithsonian Channel)
“Logging the Forests of West Virginia” – Potomac Appalachian Trail Club
“If you’ve ever backpacked in the West Virginia mountains, there’s one fact that becomes quickly evident. Virtually every hollow, every stream, and every mountain has a railroad grade. In some places, the railroad ties are still on the ground. In others, visitors might run across a rusting washtub in the middle of the woods, or even an occasional railroad spike or rail. Regardless of how far back you go or how deep into the wilderness, the grades are there – mute testament to the energy of man, power of the dollar, and the complete destruction of the West Virginia forest ecosystem.
“. . .The destruction of these once magnificent forests in the 1880’s and stretching over a forty year period was “complete”. Virtually every tree on every mountain was cut down and hauled out by horse, steam rigger, or train. The logging companies that swarmed over the West Virginia mountains removed these trees “with pride”. This was the age of the Industrial Revolution – man’s superiority over nature. The days of the railroad, cattle and timber barons, and industrial giants like J.P. Morgan. ‘Progress was good.’ ‘Nature existed to serve man’s superior intellect and needs. . . ”
Continue Reading at PATC’s “Logging the Forests of West Virginia” Webpage – Includes Multiple Photographs
“Monongah” – 1907
“Monongah 1907 Mine Disaster”
“This short clip is from Davitt McAteer’s 1985 25-minute video – ‘Monongah 1907.’ The entire video, rich with detail about this disaster, also traces the development of mine safety laws in the US.” (4:19/2008/markdcatlin)
“Monongah- An American Tragedy”
“This video was filmed by the US History Club at my High School about the 1907 Monongah Mine Disaster. Yes, I know that the boots and such are anachronistic. Problem? Make your own Monongah Video :)” (5:17/2012/Travis Brooks)
“The Monongah Heroine”
“The Monongah Heroine” Documentary
“WVU Teaching Assistant Professor Gina Martino Dahlia’s award-winning historical documentary, ‘The Monongah Heroine,’ tells the story of those left behind after the Dec. 6, 1907 mine explosion in Monongah, W.Va., that killed 362 men.”
This is the trailer for the film. (0:49/2010/West Virginia U)
“Battle of the Coalfields” – WV Tourism
“During the decade following its organization in 1890, the United Mine Workers of America had endeavored to unionize the West Virginia coalfields. The organization’s greatest success was in the Kanawha field, where, with the assistance of “Mother” Mary Jones, an elderly union organizer with almost uncanny influence over the miners, most mines were organized by 1902. Unionization proved exceedingly difficult, partly because the law generally favored the operators, who made use of court injunctions to restrain miners from picketing, striking, or molesting company property.
“In 1912 – 1913 one of the most serious labor disturbances in West Virginia history occurred on Paint Creek in the Kanawha field. The trouble, which spread to nearby Cabin Creek, arose when coal companies refused to renew contracts under which the miners had worked for several years. The miners countered by striking, whereupon the companies evicted them from their company-owned homes and attempted to operate their mines with imported labor and other strikebreakers. The strike continued for weeks, with tension steadily mounting. Hundreds of coal mining families took up residence in tents and improvised shelters along the public highways and occasionally clashed with the Baldwin-Felts detectives and their armed guards employed by the companies. At Mucklow a pitched battle occurred in which 12 miners and four company guards lost their lives. A few miles below that town, mine officials and others aboard a moving train shot into a tent colony in the middle of the night.
“In an effort to combat the disorders, Governor Glasscock proclaimed martial law over the area, and about a hundred persons, including “Mother” Jones, were arrested. When Governor Hatfield took office, he forced the operators to bargain with the United Mine Workers, and the bloody strike came to an end. By then it had gained national attention, and a U. S. Senate committee conducted an investigation into conditions on Paint Creek.
“During 1920 – 1921, serious trouble broke out in Logan and Mingo counties. At Matewan a clash between miners and Baldwin-Felts agents resulted in nine deaths, and other confrontations proved almost as bloody. In August, 1921, about three thousand miners from the Kanawha Valley assembled at Marmet for a march upon Mingo County. Although “Mother” Jones tried to dissuade them from their course, they set out for the southern counties. At Blair Mountain they were met by about 1,200 state police, deputy sheriffs, mine guards, and others, who sought to prevent them from reaching their destination. In the ensuing battle of Blair Mountain, with its First World War atmosphere, three men lost their lives and about 40 others were wounded. The miners were defeated, and 543 of them were tried on various charges including treason.”
An article from the National Historic Landmarks website about the “Mother Jones Prison” includes a great synopsis of the 1912-1913 mine wars.
[Photo: The Mother Jones Prison and a portrait of Mother Mary Harris Jones.]
“The Mine Wars” – American Experience – PBS
“Go inside the coal miners’ bitter battle for dignity at the dawn of the 20th century with The Mine Wars. The struggle over the material that fueled America led to the largest armed insurrection since the Civil War and turned parts of West Virginia into a bloody war zone.”
“In the first two decades of the 20th century, coal miners and coal companies in West Virginia clashed in a series of brutal conflicts over labor conditions and unionization. Known collectively as the “Mine Wars,” the struggle included strikes, assassinations, marches, and the largest civil insurrection in the United States since the Civil War. Coal was the engine of American industrial progress at the beginning of the 20th century. It powered . . . “
Explore PBS/American Experience’s “The Mine Wars-Introduction” Website to continue reading —
includes an extensive historical discussion and links to expanded, supplemental material.
View “The Mine Wars” – WV Public Broadcasting
“WV Mine Wars Museum” – Matewan
“The West Virginia Mine Wars Museum, in the heart of Historic Matewan, preserves and interprets artifacts and historical records of the local communities affected by the West Virginia Mine Wars, exploring historical events from multiple perspectives through the lives of ordinary people. We aim to be a community partner through youth education and promotion of heritage tourism. Its offerings include exhibits about coal camp life, the Paint Creek – Cabin Creek Strike of 1912-1913, the Matewan Massacre, the Miners’ March, and the Battle of Blair Mountain. Using audio, video, artifacts, maps, and historic photos, the museum simulates the journey that many mining families took as they began to organize to gain rights.”
“Matewan Minewars Museum” – WV Public Broadcasting
“The Matewan WV Mine Wars Museum’s open house and tour.” (2:56/2014/WV Public Broadcasting)
“Matewan” – Movie Trailer
“Matewan (1987) is a drama film written and directed by John Sayles, and starring Chris Cooper, James Earl Jones, Mary McDonnell, and Will Oldham, with David Strathairn, Kevin Tighe, and Gordon Clapp in supporting roles. The film dramatizes the events of the Battle of Matewan, during a coal miners’ strike in 1920. The movie was actually filmed in Thurmond, located on the New River about 100 miles from Matewan.” (1:39/2013/Spotlight West Virginia)
“Shootout in Matewan, West Virginia, May 19, 1920”
“This is a scene from the movie ‘Matewan’ ” (1987) (6:37)
“Hawk’s Nest Tunnel” – 1930
<<For information on the Hawk’s Nest dam, tunnel and power plant, see MH3WV’s “Energy/Natural Resources” page.>>
“The Hawk’s Nest Tunnel ‘Incident’ ” – New River Gorge National River
“The Hawks Nest “Incident” was not a coal mining disaster but it has been called the worst industrial disaster in the history of the United States. The Hawks Nest Tunnel is still in operation. Water diverted for the tunnel comes from the impoundment on the New River at Hawks Nest Dam which is visible from the overlooks at Hawks Nest State Park.”
“The Hawk’s Nest Tunnel and Dam – A History Lesson” – Official Bridge Day
“Hawks Nest State Park is a great place to visit while you explore the New River Gorge. From the Park’s lofty perch on the rim of the Gorge, you can catch a view of the Hawks Nest Dam down below. What you cannot see is the tunnel that was built beside the dam to divert the river’s waters to a power plant.”
“The Hawk’s Nest Tunnel Tragedy” – US Occupational Safety and Health Administration
“During the 1930s, hundreds of workers, from a tunnel construction project near the town of Gauley Bridge, West Virginia, died from silicosis, a lung disease caused by exposure to silica dust. The employer did not use methods known at the time to control the deadly dust. For the full story, read Martin Cherniack’s book, ‘The Hawk’s Nest Incident: America’s Worst Industrial Disaster.’ New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986. This clip was taken from the 1979 film, ‘Can’t Take No More,’ from Federal OSHA.” (1:39/2007/markdcatlin)
“The Point Pleasant Bridge Disaster” – 1967
“The Point Pleasant Bridge (Silver Bridge) was an eyebar-chain suspension bridge built in 1928 and named for the color of its aluminum paint. The bridge connected Point Pleasant, WV and Gallipolis, OH, over the Ohio River.
“On December 15, 1967, the Silver Bridge collapsed while it was full of rush-hour traffic, resulting in the deaths of 46 people. Two of the victims were never found. Investigation of the wreckage pointed to the cause of the collapse being the failure of a single eyebar in a suspension chain, due to a small defect 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) deep. Analysis showed that the bridge was carrying much heavier loads than it had originally been designed for and had been poorly maintained. The collapsed bridge was replaced by the Silver Memorial Bridge, which was completed in 1969.” (4:27/2014)
“The Silver Bridge Disaster” – The Open University – UK
“How the Silver Bridge and the Hi-Carpenter Bridge differed from other suspension bridges in one crucial aspect.” (2009/5:53/Open University)
“Point Pleasant Silver Bridge” (3 Parts)
A more in depth discussion of the disaster. Produced in 2007 by Peet Media Associates for The Open University
1 – “Eyebars in Suspension”
2 – “Stresses and Strains”
3 – “The Collapse”
“Farmington” – 1968
“Farmington Coal Mine Explosion 1968” – Mine Safety & Health Administration
“At approximately 5:30 a.m. on Wednesday, November 20, 1968, an explosion occurred in the Consol No.9 Mine, Mountaineer Coal Company, Division of Consolidation Coal Company, Farmington, Marion County, West Virginia. There were 99 miners in the mine when the explosion occurred, 78 of whom died as a result of the explosion. The other 21 miners survived the explosion and escaped to the surface. The mine was sealed at its surface openings on November 30, 1968. Damage to the mine in the explosion area was extensive, requiring loading of rock falls, replacement of ventilation and transportation facilities, and in some cases new mine entries to bypass extensively caved areas. Investigative activities were continued, in cooperation with the Company, State, and United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) organizations, as mine areas were recovered. Between 1969 and 1978, the bodies of 59 victims were recovered and brought to the surface. Recovery operations ceased and all entrances to the mine were permanently sealed in November 1978, leaving 19 victims buried in the mine and leaving some areas of the mine unexplored. This was clipped from the 2004 video, ‘We Are … MSHA,’ by the Mine Safety and Health Administration.” (0.42/2011/markdcatlin)
“Farmington WV Coal Mine No. 9 Disaster 1968” – NBC News
“A news report on the Farmington Wv No. 9 Mine explosion of 1968 by Jack Perkins.” (4:54)
“Buffalo Creek” – 1972
“The Buffalo Creek Disaster” – WV Archives and History
“More than thirty years ago, one of the deadliest floods in U.S. history occurred in southern West Virginia’s Buffalo Creek hollow. Negligent strip mining and heavy rain produced a raging flood. In a matter of minutes, 118 were dead and over 4,000 people were left homeless. Seven were never found.”
“1972 Buffalo Creek, Dam Collapse”
“This video aired on the History Channel in 2010.” (9:54/2010)
“The Buffalo Creek Flood”
“A sample from the award-winning 1975 Appalshop film “The Buffalo Creek Flood: An Act of Man.” On Feb. 26, 1972, a coal waste dam owned by the Pittston Company collapsed at the head of a crowded hollow in southern West Virginia. A wall of sludge, debris, and water tore through the valley below, leaving in its wake 125 dead and 4000 homeless. The Pittston Company, owners of the dam, denied any wrongdoing, maintaining that the disaster was ‘an act of God’. Interviews with survivors, representatives of union and citizen’s groups, and company officials are juxtaposed with actual footage of the flood and scenes of the ensuing devastation. A film by Mimi Pickering.” (8:22/2012/Appalshop)
“Willow Island” – 1978
“Willow Island Disaster”
“The Willow Island disaster was the collapse of a cooling tower under construction at a power station at Willow Island, West Virginia, on Thursday, April 27, 1978. The falling concrete caused the scaffolding to collapse, killing 51 construction workers. It is thought to be the largest construction accident in American history.” (8:54)
“The Flood of 1985”
“A Slideshow of the 1985 Flood in West Virginia”— A silideshow of photos of the 1985 Flood in West Virginia from the staffs of the Charleston Gazette and Charleston Daily Mail, with recollections by photographers and staffers who shot photos and wrote stories from the front lines of the flood-damaged counties. A total of 47 people were killed in the floods. Pendleton and Grant counties had the most fatalities. Towns such as Parsons, Rowlesburg, Philippi, Marlinton, Glenville, Petersburg, and Moorefield were severely damaged, according to the wvencyclopedia.org.
“A companion video to a story in the Thursday, Nov. 4, 2015 Charleston Gazette-Mail” (6:47/2015/Charleston Gazette-Mail)
“Sago” – 2006
“Sago Mine Disaster – What Would You Say?”
“sago mine disaster”
“On January 2, 2006 13 men were trapped in the Sago mines in West Virginia, only one made it out alive.
A vid I did for my West Virginia history class.” (3:47/2009/xxchristylewisxx)
“Upper Big Branch – UBB” – 2010
“Upper Big Branch Mine Disaster”
“I made this video for a class project. Its also in memory of all the brave miners=(
“The explosion occurred at 3:27 PM local time on Monday, April 5, 2010, at the Upper Big Branch South Mine near the community Montcoal, about 30 miles south of Charleston. The mine is operated by the Performance Coal Company, a subsidiary of Massey Energy High methane levels were detected and subsequently an explosion from an unknown source occurred. Twenty-five men were initially identified as killed. Four missing men were later found dead four days later for a total of 29 deaths. Officials have speculated that it may have been caused by a spark from a mantrip.”
“Upper Big Branch Mine Disaster Simulation”
“Video released by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration, Dec. 6, 2011. ” (13.27/2011/kenwardjr)
“The 1000 Year Flood” – 2016
“Inside Appalachia: WV’s 1000 Year Flood” – WV Public Broadcasting
“The National Weather Service called the June 2016 flooding in southern West Virginia an exceptional meteorological event, a vicious line-up of storms that came in simultaneously from the northeast and the southeast. Almost 8 inches of rain fell in some spots in just 12 to 18 hours. That amount of rain in such a short time period is something expected once in 1,000 years, according to the NWS.
“The area damaged in southern West Virginia is unprecedented.
“West Virginia Public Broadcasting reporters fan out throughout southern West Virginia to assess the damage and examine recovery efforts. How can and should these already struggling communities rebuild? Was the state as prepared as it should have been? How do we help our children through the trauma? WVPB brings you the stories of heroism and survival in towns like Richwood, Rainelle, White Sulphur Springs, and Clendenin. Residents and community leaders share their stories of loss and resilience.
“The program also examines the state’s plan forward with conversations with Adjutant General, Major General James Hoyer of the WV National Guard, now Chief Recovery Coordinator, appointed by Gov. Earl Ray Tomblin.”
“Jay: A Rockefeller’s Journey” – WV Public Broadcasting
“Why would the heir to one of the nation’s largest family fortunes come to one of the poorest states in the nation – and stay? This documentary traces the 50-year public service career of John D. Rockefeller IV, while capturing much of the political history of West Virginia, his adopted home.”
The Trailer. (2:20/2014/WV Public Broadcasting)
The Entire Program:
Explore WV Public Broadcasting’s “Jay: A Rockefeller’s Journey” to view video (1:56:53/2016/WV Public Broadcasting)
Mail Pouch Tobacco Barns
“The Mail Pouch slogan appeared on thousands of roadside barns throughout the Ohio River Valley. Today, these nostalgic reminders of Sunday drives from the ‘50s have been disappearing . Mail Pouch discontinued this advertising medium when Harvey Warrick, the last Mail Pouch Barn painter died in 1992. Harley put his expert touch to over 20,000 barns throughout the mid-west. The Mail Pouch barn painting began in 1890 and the slogan could be read from Wisconsin to South Carolina and New Jersey to Iowa.”
“How West Virginia’s Mail Pouch Changed the Face of Advertising” – WV Public Broadcasting
“You’ve probably seen them. Barns with faded paint usually in black or red with yellow lettering delivering an old message from another time: ‘Chew Mail Pouch’ and ‘Treat Yourself to the Best.’ Once upon a time these hand-painted advertisements covered more than 20,000 barns all across America. . . “
“Mail Pouch Tobacco Barns: America’s Early Outdoor Advertising” – WV Executive Magazine
“The name Mail Pouch usually evokes a visual image of an idyllic barn in a pastoral setting and an automatic sense of familiarity with the product. Perhaps the country’s most well-known outdoor advertising tool, the surviving landmark Mail Pouch barns are important and treasured pieces of Americana. What many people don’t know is that Mail Pouch Chewing Tobacco was a product of West Virginia. . . “
Mail Pouch Tobacco Barns in West Virginia: – Explore Jack Powers’ “Mail Pouch Tobacco Barns in West Virginia” Website for some photos
Bloch Bros. 75th Anniversary 1879-1954: “An article that appeared in a Bloch Bros. company magazine in 1954 on the occasion of the firm’s 75th anniversary. Since that time there have been several further developments in the life of the company.” Explore Cigarette Pack Collectors’ Association’s “Bloch Bros. 75th Anniversary 1879-1954” Website
“National Coal Heritage Area”
“The National Coal Heritage Area encompasses 13 counties and is situated in the heart of the formidable Appalachian Mountains, displaying coalfield history captured in time.”
“It is a rugged industrial landscape that showcases the stories of miners of many ethnicities who labored to extract and transport coal, and their wives, who struggled to maintain homes under primitive conditions. Coalfield history and culture contains key elements of a unique social and economic history including the stories of industrial might, the struggle for labor unions, and the growth of distinctive cultural communities among different ethnic groups who worked side-by-side and lived together in the ‘company towns’ of the region.”
Explore “National Coal Heritage Area” Website — Includes: “Birth of the Industry, Three Railroads, King Coal, Coal Miners, Company Towns, United Mine Workers, End of an Era, Coal Camp Baseball,” and more.
“New River Gorge National River – History & Culture – People, Places, Stories”
“The New River is like a ribbon tying together all the people, places, and events sharing its course through time.”
- John Henry and the Coming of the Railroad
- Coal Mine Disasters
- Arrowheads of the Past and Present
- Discovering Berry Holler and Big Branch Trail
- Batteaux on the New
- Mother Jones
- Joseph Beury
- Mary Draper Ingles
- Carter G Woodson
- John Nuttall
- Prince Depot
- Camp Brookside
- Trump-Lilly Farm
- McKendree Hospital
- Glade Creek / Hamlet
- Army Camp
- Mill Creek and the Harrah Farm
- Sandstone School
“Ghost Town: Kaymoor, WV” – WV Public Broadcasting
Kaymoor is an abandoned coal town in the New River Gorge. Nature will reclaim anything if given a chance. Former resident Orvil King remembers the community into which he was born. (10:52/2009/WV Public Broadcasting)
“Ghost Town: Royal, WV” – WV Public Broadcasting
Royal was once a booming coal town. Now it’s just some metal artifacts, stone walls, and gravestones. (7:58/2009/WV Public Broadcasting)
“Gauley River National Recreation Area – History & Culture”
“The Gauley River and its gorge have been a barrier as well as a corridor for human activity. The area was used for fishing and hunting by Native Americans for 10,000 years and was populated by Europeans in the late 1700s.
“The confluence of the Gauley and Meadow rivers was the site of an 1861 Civil War battle. Union troops forced Confederate forces from their position overlooking the Gauley. The site is part of Carnifex Ferry Battlefield State Park. In the late 1800s, railroads and lumber companies came to the gorge to harvest its vast supply of timber. Industrial pollution drained directly into the Gauley River, earning it the nickname “the River of Ink.” This pollution killed fish and prevented people from swimming and enjoying the river’s water. In 1922, the West Virginia State Wildlife League was successful in cleaning up the Gauley River, forcing the industrial plants along the Gauley’s tributaries to dispose of waste properly.”
“Bluestone National Scenic River – History & Culture – People, Places, Stories”
People: Thomas Ingles
“The Bluestone Gorge once provided a route of transportation and migration through a rugged, untamed wilderness. Throughout time, people have passed through the gorge and sometimes settled here. Their stories combine to form the rich cultural history preserved as a part of Bluestone National Scenic River.”
Places: The Lost Town of Lilly
“Walking along the Bluestone Turnpike today, it is hard to believe that this was once a major thoroughfare used by Native Americans and later by early settlers and subsistence farmers who settled along the Bluestone River. Small farms were found throughout the Bluestone Gorge.”
Stories: Moonshining on the Blue
“Walking through Bluestone National Scenic River today, one will find traces of the past; an old stone wall, a chimney or foundation protruding from the undergrowth, a headstone or cemetery seemingly lost in the forest. These tangible remains help to tell and preserve the stories of those who came before us.”
“Harpers Ferry National Historical Park WV, VA, MD – History & Culture – People, Places, Stories”
Step Back in Time
“A visit to this quaint, historic community, at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers, is like stepping into the past. Stroll the picturesque streets, visit exhibits and museums, or hike our trails and battlefields.
“History & Culture: THE HISTORY OF HARPERS FERRY HAS FEW PARALLELS IN THE AMERICAN DRAMA. It is more than one event, one date, or one individual. It is multi-layered – involving a diverse number of people and events that influenced the course of our nation’s history. Harpers Ferry witnessed the first successful application of interchangeable manufacture, the arrival of the first successful American railroad, John Brown’s attack on slavery, the largest surrender of Federal troops during the Civil War, and the education of former slaves in one of the earliest integrated schools in the United States.”
- Robert Harper
- Thomas Jefferson
- George Washington
- Meriwether Lewis
- John H. Hall
- James H. Burton
- John Brown
- Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson
- Frederick Douglass
- W. E. B. Du Bois
- Don Redman
- Maryland Heights
- Loudoun Heights
- John Brown’s Raid
- The Civil War
- African-American History
- Natural Heritage
- Library & Research Room
- Digital Resources
- Historic Newspapers
- Historic Newspaper Abstracts
- History Reports
- Lowertown/Harpers Ferry Cultural Landscape Report
- National Park Service History e-Library
- Historic Photographs
- Archeology Program
Preview of the documentary (3:34/2009)
“WV Documentary Consortium”
The West Virginia Documentary Consortium, Inc. is a non-profit organization dedicated to the creation of documentary films about West Virginia history and culture.
“The Great Kanawha River – An American Story” – WV Documentary Consortium
“This is a history of the Great Kanawha River in West Virginia. Scholars and experts provide insight into a river that played a significant role in the development of America with an emphasis on European settlement to the present. It is a presentation of the West Virginia Documentary Consortium, Inc., a nonprofit organization dedicated to the portrayal of West Virginia history and culture.”
In a Single Video: (54:55/2012/WV Documentary Consortium) [Vimeo connection currently required to watch this video]
Or in 3 Parts:
“The Great Kanawha: An American Story” – Part One (16:25/2012/WV Documentary Consortium)
“The Great Kanawha: An American Story” – Part Two (17:48/2012/WV Documentary Consortium)
“The Great Kanawha: An American Story” – Part Three (20:44/2012/WV Documentary Consortium)
“3 Rivers: The Bluestone, Gauley and New” – WV Public Broadcasting
“A 90-minute documentary from West Virginia Public Broadcasting explores the economic, environmental, cultural, historical and geographic impact of the largest federally protected system of rivers east of the Mississippi. Three Rivers: The Bluestone, Gauley and New examines the ongoing relationship between mankind and nature in this region. The film is a combination of travelogue, examination of efforts to improve the environment, and a mechanism for promoting economic development through tourism.”
Explore WV Public Broadcasting’s Website“3 Rivers: The Bluestone, Gauley and New” to view video (1:26:56/2013/WV Public Broadcasting)
“Glass Making, Glass Blowing, Glass Cutting: Seneca Glass” – 1974 – National Park Service
“Recaptures the production of early hand-blown glassware at Seneca Glass in Morgantown, WV.”
“Public domain film from the National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).” (23:14/2014/Jeff Quitney)
“WV Recreation Resources” – 1935 – National Park Service/Civilian Conservation Corps
“See West Virginia and its state parks as they were in 1935. This film focuses on State Parks of West Virginia.
In part 1, views of cities, factories, steel furnaces, hydroelectric plants, rivers, canals, and locks depict the State’s industries and waterways. It shows the Greenbrier Hotel at White Sulphur Springs and the town of Berkeley. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) men work in Lost River Park. Tourists ride horses, picnic at an outdoor table, and examine an old house. Children crippled by polio perform handicraft and sunbathe in Berkeley hospital.
In part 2, visitors to Cacapon State Park ride bicycles and horses. It shows the forest, the artificial lake, picnickers, wild turkey, and deer. Visitors to Watoga State Park picnic, swim, and fish.” (13:53/2013/Jeff Quitney)
WV History / WV Research
West Virginia History